Modal operators are words such as should, must, have to, can't, won't, etc. Additional Milton-Model Patterns In addition to the inverse Meta-Model patterns, the Milton-Model includes a number of other important language patterns. The most important of these is the use of presuppositions. Presuppositions The way to determine what is presupposed and not open to question in a sentence is to negate the sentence and find out what is still true.
The simplest kind of presupposition is existence. In the sentence "Jack ate the food" it is presupposed that "Jack" and "food" exist. If you negate the sentence and say "No, Jack didn't eat the food" the fact that Jack and the food exist is still not questioned. Presuppositions are the most powerful of the language patterns, when used by a communicator who presupposes what she doesn't want to have questioned.
A general principle is to give the person lots of choices, and yet have all of the choices presuppose the response you want.
Trance-Formations: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis
Examples of specific kinds of presuppositions that are particularly useful in hypnotic work follow. There is a complete list of presupposi- tional forms in the appendix to Patterns I. Such clauses begin with words such as before, after, during, as, since, prior, when, while, etc. Words such as another, first, second, third, etc. Words like know, aware, realize, notice, etc. The only question is if the listener is aware of whatever point you are making. Stacking many kinds of presuppositions in the same sentence makes them particularly powerful.
The more that is presupposed, the more difficult it is for the listener to unravel the sentence and question any one presupposition. Some of the presupposition sentences listed above contain several kinds of presuppositions, and those sentences will be more powerful. The following sentence is an example of the use of many presuppositions stacked together.
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Indirect Elicitation Patterns The next group of Milton-Model patterns are particularly useful in getting specific responses indirectly, without overtly asking for them. Rather than giving instructions directly, the hypnotist can embed directives within a larger sentence structure. The above mes- sages are likely to have a much more graceful impact than if you were to give the directives alone: "Relax.
Embedded commands are particularly pow- erful when used with analogue marking. Analogue marking means that you set the directive apart from the rest of the sentence with some nonverbal analogue behavior.
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You could do this by raising the volume of your voice when delivering the directive, by pausing before and after the directive, by changing your voice tone, by gesturing with one of your hands, or by raising your eyebrows. You can use any behavior that is perceptible to the other person to mark out a directive for special attention. The other person does not need to notice your marking consciously; in fact she will often respond more fully when your marking is perceived but not consciously recognized.
Questions, like commands, can be embedded within a larger sentence structure. The listener doesn't refuse to answer the question, because it is embedded within a statement about the speaker's curiosity. This provides a very gentle and graceful way to gather information. When a command is given in its negative form, the positive instruction is generally what is responded to. For example, if someone says "Don't think of pink polka dots" you have to think of pink polka dots to understand the sentence. Negation does not exist in primary experience of sights, sounds, and feelings; Negation exists only in secondary experiences: symbolic represen- tations such as language and mathematics.
Negative commands can be used effectively by stating what you do want to occur and preceding this statement with the word 'don't. For example, if you approach someone on the street and ask "Do you have the time?
If you ask someone "Do you know what's on TV tonight? As an example, let's say you want someone to close the door. The second step is to identify at least one thing that must be true if that person shuts the door. In other words you are identifying what your outcome presupposes.
In this case it presupposes a the person is able to shut the door, and b the door is now open. Ambiguity occurs when one sentence, phrase, or word has more than one possible meaning. Ambiguity is an impor- tant tool that can result in a mild confusion and disorientation which is useful in inducing altered states. In a normal conversation, unam- biguous statements are highly valued; in hypnosis, the opposite is often true.
Any ambiguity makes it possible for the listener to internally process a message in more than one way.
This requires that the person actively participate in creating the meaning of the message, which increases the probability that the meaning will be appropriate for her. In addition, it is likely that one or more of the meanings will remain at the unconscious level. The first four pat- terns described in this appendix Nominalizations, Unspecified Verbs, Unspecified Referential Index, and Deletion all function to increase the ambiguity of the message. Words that sound alike but have different meanings create phonological ambiguity. Other phonological ambiguities can be found in words which can either be used as an active verb "Lift your arm," or a nominal- ized verb "Give me a lift.
Words that have phonological ambiguity can be marked out analogically and combined with other words to form a separate message. For example, "I don't know how close you are to understanding now the meaning of trance. A classic example of syntactic ambiguity is the following: "Hypnotizing hypnotists can be tricky. The following sentence has the same form: "They were milking cows.
This kind of ambiguity is based on taking a transitive verb, adding "ing," and placing it before a noun. Scope ambiguity occurs when it is unclear how much of the sentence an adjective, verb, or adverb applies to. This kind of ambiguity is created by putting two sentences together that end and begin with the same word.
Patterns in Metaphor The final set of patterns is particularly useful when using metaphori- cal communication, as well as when using other kinds of hypnosis. There are many other patterns that are useful in effective story-telling.
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However, the following two are generally thought of as part of the Milton-Model. This refers to the attribution of qualities to something or someone which by definition could not possess those qualities. For example, if I talk about a rock that was very sad or a man who is pregnant, I am violating selectional restriction, since rocks do not experience feelings and men do not get pregnant.
The listener needs to find some way of making sense out of statements like this. If I talk about the experiences the sad rock had, and the changes it made, the listener is likely to make sense out of my statements by applying them to himself. This pattern involves making any statement you want to make to another person as if you are reporting in quotes what someone else said at another time and place.
Quotes can be used to deliver any message without taking respon- sibility for the message.
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Since you are apparently talking about what someone else said at another time, your listener will often respond to the message, but not consciously identify what he is responding to, or who is responsible for the message. You can talk to someone about a client of Milton Erickson's who wanted to really learn about hypnosis.
He listened to Erickson talk about hypnosis and thought that he understood. Then Erickson turned to him and said emphatically "You don't really know some thing until you've practiced every piece of it thoroughly! Core Transformation: Reaching the Wellspring Within. Andreas, Connirae; and Andreas, Steve. Heart of the Mind. Andreas, Steve; and Andreas, Connirae. Change Your Mind—and Keep the Change.
Bandler, Richard; and Grinder, John. Frogs Into Princes. Related Papers. By Rifki Rizal.
Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton. By Vishal Rai. Bandler, Richard; and Grinder, John. Frogs into Princes. The Structure of Magic I. Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M. Changing with Families. Cameron—Bandler, Leslie. Dilts, Robert B.
Neuro—Linguistic Programming I. Farrelly, Frank; and Brandsma, Jeff. Provocative Therapy. Gordon, David. Grinder, John; and Bandler, Richard.